Novel ressortant swine H3N2 influenza A viruses in Germany
Analysis of 228 H3N2 swine influenza A virus isolates collected between 2003 and 2015 in Germany revealed important changes in molecular epidemiology. The data indicate that a novel reassortant, Rietberg/2014-like swine H3N2, emerged in February 2014 in Northern Germany. It is comprised of a hemagglutinin gene of seasonal H3N2 (A/Denmark/129/2005-like), a neuraminidase gene of Emmelsbuell/2009-like swine H1N2 and the internal gene cassette of pandemic H1N1 viruses. Together with Danish swine H3N2 strains of 2013–2015 with identical genome layout, the Rietberg/2014-like viruses represent a second swine H3N2 lineage which cocirculates with a variant of the Gent/1984-like swine H3N2 lineage. This variant, named Gent1984/Diepholz-like swine H3N2, has a Gent/1984-like HA and a Diepholz/2008-like NA; the origin of the internal gene cassette likely derived from avian-like swine H1N1. The first isolate of the Gent1984/Diepholz reassortant emerged in Northern Germany in September 2011 whereas the last German Gent/1984-like isolate was collected in October 2011.
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