2019-01-09Zeitschriftenartikel DOI: 10.25646/5897
Respiratory Virus Infections in Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipients
Highly immunocompromised pediatric and adult hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients frequently experience respiratory infections caused by viruses that are less virulent in immunocompetent individuals. Most of these infections, with the exception of rhinovirus as well as adenovirus and parainfluenza virus in tropical areas, are seasonal variable and occur before and after HCT. Infectious disease management includes sampling of respiratory specimens from nasopharyngeal washes or swabs as well as sputum and tracheal or tracheobronchial lavages. These are subjected to improved diagnostic tools including multiplex PCR assays that are routinely used allowing for expedient detection of all respiratory viruses. Disease progression along with high mortality is frequently associated with respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, influenza virus, and metapneumovirus infections. In this review, we discuss clinical findings and the appropriate use of diagnostic measures. Additionally, we also discuss treatment options and suggest new drug formulations that might prove useful in treating respiratory viral infections. Finally, we shed light on the role of the state of immune reconstitution and on the use of immunosuppressive drugs on the outcome of infection.
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