2018-10-18Zeitschriftenartikel DOI: 10.25646/6112
Pathways of host cell exit by intracellular pathogens
Hornef, Mathias W.
Host cell exit is a critical step in the life-cycle of intracellular pathogens, intimately linked to barrier penetration, tissue dissemination, inflammation, and pathogen transmission. Like cell invasion and intracellular survival, host cell exit represents a well-regulated program that has evolved during host-pathogen co-evolution and that relies on the dynamic and intricate interplay between multiple host and microbial factors. Three distinct pathways of host cell exit have been identified that are employed by three different taxa of intracellular pathogens, bacteria, fungi and protozoa, namely (i) the initiation of programmed cell death, (ii) the active breaching of host cell-derived membranes, and (iii) the induced membrane-dependent exit without host cell lysis. Strikingly, an increasing number of studies show that the majority of intracellular pathogens utilize more than one of these strategies, dependent on life-cycle stage, environmental factors and/or host cell type. This review summarizes the diverse exit strategies of intracellular-living bacterial, fungal and protozoan pathogens and discusses the convergently evolved commonalities as well as system-specific variations thereof. Key microbial molecules involved in host cell exit are highlighted and discussed as potential targets for future interventional approaches.
Files in this item